NIRF 2019

Departement Syllabus


BA Economics Syllabus under CBCS

w.e.f. 2015-16 (Revised in April 2016)

I Year B. A. Programme (UG) Courses – Under CBCS

Semester – I, Paper – I (Core Paper)

Micro Economics – Consumer Behavior

​​​​​Module -1:  Nature, definition and scope of Economics - Wealth, Welfare, Scarcity and modern definitions.

Module -2:  Methodology in Economics - Micro & Macro; Static and Dynamic analysis; Normative&positive science, Inductive & Deductive methods; Partial and general Equilibrium.

Module–3:  Utility analysis: - cardinal approach-The Law of diminishing  Marginal utility- The Law of Equi-Marginal Utility- concept of consumer's surplus.

Module-4:  Demand analysis - Law of Demand - Elasticity of Demand - Measurement of Elasticity of Demand - Price, Income & Cross Elasticities of Demand.

 Module-5:  Ordinal Approach: Indifference Curve analysis - Properties of Indifference curves - Price or budget   line - Equilibrium of the Consumer with the help of Indifference curves – Samuelson’s Revealed preference theory.


Semester – II, Paper – II (Core Paper)

Micro Economics - Production and Price Theory

Module – 1: Production function-Concept of homogeneous production function-Cobb-Douglas Production function- Law of variable proportions-Law of Returns to Scale- Different Concepts of Costs – Explicit & Implicit, Opportunity, Total – fixed and  Variable Costs, Marginal & Average Costs  & its Relationship. Concept of Revenue – Total, Marginal & Average Revenue and Break – Even Point

Module – 2: Analyse different types of Market structures - Perfect Competition - Price determination and equilibrium of firm and industry under perfect competition - Monopoly - Price determination - Price discrimination.

Module – 3: Monopolistic competition - price determination - Oligopoly - Kinked demand curve approach.

Module – 4: Marginal Productivity theory of distribution - Theories of wage determination-Subsistence theory of wages, Standard of living theory of wages, Modern theory of wages Wages and collective bargaining - concept of minimum wage.

Module – 5: Theory of Rent:  Ricardian theory of rent - Quasi rent concept of Alfred Marshall. Theories of Interest - Classical, Neo-classical and Keynes Liquidity Preference  theory - Profit - dynamic,  innovations, Risk and Uncertainty theories.


II Year B. A. Programme (UG) Courses – Under CBCS

Semester – III, Paper – III (Core Paper)

                Macro Economics - National Income, Employment and Money


Module – 1: Meaning, definition of Macro Economics - Importance of Macro Economics- Difference between Micro and Macro Economics - Paradox of Macro Economics -Limitations

Module – 2: National Income - Definitions, Concepts of National Income - Measurement of National Income- Circular flow of Income in Two, Three and Four Sector Economy.

Module – 3:    Classical theory of Employment - Say's Law of Markets.

Module – 4:  Keynesian Theory of Employment - Consumption function – Investment Function  -  Marginal Efficiency of Capital (MEC)- Concepts of multiplier and  accelerator.

Module – 5: Meaning and Functions of Money - Classification of money - Gresham's Law - RBI classification of Money. Theories of Money - Fisher's Quantity theory of Money, Cambridge approach (Marshall, Pigou, Robertson & Keynes).


                                                        ​​ Semester – IV, Paper – IV (Core Paper)

Banking and International Trade

Module – 1:    Trade Cycles - meaning and definition - Phases of a Trade Cycle -Inflation - definition - types of inflation - causes and effects of inflation measures to control inflation.

Module – 2:    Banking: Meaning and definition -Functions of Commercial Banks - Concept of Credit creation-Functions of RBI - Recent developments in banking sectors.

Module – 3: Non-Bank Financial Institutions – Types of NBFIs - Factors contributing to the Growth of NBFIs –-Money market – Defects of Indian money market

Module – 4: Concepts of Shares- Debentures  - Stock Market - Functions - Primary and Secondary Markets - SEBI -  Insurance - Life Insurance and General Insurance.

Module – 5:    Macro Economic Policy - Fiscal, Monetary and Exchange rate policies, Objectives and Significance - Importance of International Trade - Regional and International Trade – Defining Balance of Trade and Balance of Payment.


III Year B. A. Programme (UG) Courses – Under CBCS

Semester – V, Paper – V (Core Paper)

Economic Development and Indian Economy


Module – 1: Concept of Economic Growth - Distinction between economic growth and development - Measurement of economic development - Theories of Economic Growth: Adam Smith,  Rostow, Karl Marx and Harrod &  Domar Models.

Module – 2: Sustainable development - Balanced and unbalanced growth-choice of techniques, Labour intensive and capital intensive methods.

Module – 3: Basic features of the Indian Economy - Natural Resources - Important  Demographic features- Concept of Population Dividend - Population Policy.

Module – 4 : National Income in India - trends and composition-poverty, inequalities and Unemployment - Measures taken by the Government. - MGNREGS

Module – 5: Economic reforms - liberalization, privatization and globalisation - concept of  inclusive growth.


III Year B. A. Programme (UG) Courses – Under CBCS

Semester – V, Paper – VI (Core Paper)

Indian and Andhra Pradesh Economy

Module – 1: Indian Agriculture - Importance of Agriculture in India - Agrarian structure and relations- Factors determining Productivity- Agricultural Infrastructure - Rural credit - Micro Finance - Self Help Groups (SHGs) - Agricultural Price policy- concept of Crop Insurance - Food Security.

Module – 2 : Structure and growth of Indian Industry - Industrial policies of 1956 & 1991  Meaning of Micro small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)- Problems and Prospects of small scale Industries in India.

Module – 3: Disinvestment in India - FEMA - Foreign direct investment - Services Sector in India – Reforms in Banking and Insurance -, IT, Education and Health.

Module – 4: Planning in India Economy - Objectives of Five year plans - Review of Five year Plans - Current Five year plan- NITI Aayog

Module – 5: Andhra Pradesh Economy  - Population - GSDP - Sector Contribution and trends - IT – Small Scale Industry - SEZs.


             III Year B. A. Programme (UG) Courses – Under CBCS

Semester – VI, Paper – VII (F) (Elective Paper VII (F)

Public Finance


Module – 1: Meaning and scope of Public Finance - Distinction between Public and Private Finance. Principle of maximum social advantage

Module – 2: Source of Public Revenue - Taxes - administrative revenues - commercial  Revenues - Gift and grants - Concept of VAT. Canons of taxation (Adam Smith's and Modern Economists).

Module- 3: Meaning and classification of public expenditure - principles of public  Expenditure Wagner's Law - Peacock - Wiseman Hypothesis.

Module – 4: Public debt - classification of public debt - methods of debt redemption

Module – 5: Budget - Meaning and Definition - Components of Budget - Concepts of Budget Deficits - Indian Union Budget.


Rayalaseema University, KURNOOL

III-B.A. CBCS w.e.f. 2017-18

Semester – VI, Elective Paper-VIII-Economic-Statistics 

Module – I: Nature & Scope of Statistics, Definitions, functions and Limitations - , Importance of Statistics. Collection of Data – Primary and Secondary Data – Methods of Collection and Sources of Data

Module – II: Diagrams - Merits & De-Merits – Importance of Diagrams - Simple Bar Diagram – Pie-Diagram. Graphs - Histogram – Frequency Polygon – Frequency Curves – Ogive Curves

Module – III : Measures of central Tendency- Introduction, Arithmetic Mean - Simple Arithmetic Mean, Weighted Arithmetic Mean. Median – Quartiles – Mode. Geometric Mean, Harmonic Mean - Merits and Demerits.

Module – IV: Measures of Dispersion - Range - Quartile Deviation - Standard Deviation & Coefficient of variation - Merits and Demerits.

Module – V: Index Numbers – Construction of Laspeyer’s - Passchies & Fishers Ideal Index Number, Time Reversal & Factor reversal Test.